Pringle Laboratory


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Amanita thiersii genome

Pringle Laboratory

Invasion & Conservation Biology of Fungi

Invasive species cause many problems, but are also tools to explore controls on the distributions of species. Biologists have a limited understanding of the impacts of mutualism and symbiosis on the establishment and spread of introduced species. We are exploring the interactions of symbiosis and invasion biology using the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides as a model. Our work has also involved us in conservation, which is a rapidly developing focus for research with microbes. Our interdisciplinary approach to conservation aims to facilitate dialogue among the diverse stakeholders who care about fungi.


Barron ES, C Sthultz, D Hurley, A Pringle. Manuscript. Practicing epistemological pluralism: Transdisciplinary research for adaptive co-management and conservation of fungal resources.

Wolfe BE, A Pringle. 2011. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus. The ISME Journal 4:745-755 [download]

Pringle A, E Barron, K Sartor and J Wares. 2011. Fungi and the Anthropocene: Biodiversity discovery in an epoch of loss. Fungal Ecology 2: 121-123
[download | link to TOC for Fungal Ecology special issue on fungal conservation]

Vellinga, EC, BE Wolfe, A Pringle. 2009. Global patterns of ectomycorrhizal introductions. New Phytologist.[download]

Pringle, A, EC Vellinga. 2006. Last chance to know? Using literature to explore the biogeography of and invasion biology of the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides (Vaill. Ex Fr. :Fr) Link. Biological Invasions 8: 1131-1144 [download]



A flyer posted in parks
around San Francisco,
to warn mushroom hunters
about Amanita phalloides.