I. Island Biogeography
Why are islands important in biogeography? Who are MacArthur and Wilson? What is the relationship between species number and area? Know the "theory of island biogeography," especially as it relates to immigration, extinction, island size, and island remoteness - try graphing these.
II. Island Biology
What peculiar things happen to plants and animals on islands? Know the important principles of dispersal as highlighted in class. What are the most important dispersal mechanisms for the Hawaiian flora? Why? Read the paper by Gillespie et al. (2012) on long-distance dispersal. What does it mean that the Hawaiian flora is depauperate, endemic, and disharmonic? What are the floristic affinities of the Hawaiian floras (in general)? What is adaptive radiation? Know briefly (!) the important aspects of adaptive radiation in Hawaiian silverswords and lobelioids (the paper by Givnish et al. summarizes the Hawaiian lobeliad adaptive radiation). What is unusual about the tepuis and paramos, in an island biogeographic sense? Read the paper by Madrinan et al. (2014) on paramo biogeography and evolution. What is the pattern of speciation in Dendrosenecio across the Afro-alpine mountains?
Know the main eras and periods of the geological time scale. See the See the 2-page class handout for major points. Review the fossil plant display in Birge 254 that depicts some of these - see Greenhouse Tour 3 for write up of these fossils.
IV. North American Flora
What was the general trend in climate in North America during the Tertiary? Know a general picture of how the North American vegetation (and flora if possible) changed during the last 70 million years up to the ice ages. Optional: read the chapter by Graham for a review of North America biogeography. Review the fossil plant display in Birge 254 that depicts some of these - see Greenhouse Tour 3 for write up of these fossils. When did grasslands become important? When did the Arcto-Tertiary flora arise and decline?
Explain the nature of the eastern North American vegetation at about 18,000 ya. Briefly describe how and when various floristic elements entered Wisconsin during the Holocene; use the terms refugia or survivia in your answer. Read the paper by Gavin et al. (2014) to find kinds of evidence for glacial refugia during the ice ages. What are the two main floristic provinces in Wisconsin? What is the tension zone? Was western Europe affected differently during the Quaternary?
Were there similar Pleistocene cycles in the tropics? Who is Haffer (and Prance)? What was his theory and what support is there for the theory? What evidence is there against his theory today?
V. Future of Biogeography (or of the Biota)
What are several current problems that impact plant distributions? What is a weed? What are the main sources of weeds for the Great Lakes? What is now known about hybridization between invasive and native species? Read the paper by David Quammen on Planet of Weeds. How can climate warming impact the biogeography of plants? How and why has American beech been used as a model tree species for climate change studies in biogeography? Read the paper by Ellwood et al. (2013) to understand one aspect of climate change on plants and how it can be assessed.
VI. Greenhouse/outside tour!