Lab 16: Carrots and Honeysuckles

 

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Apiaceae, the Parsley or Carrot family; Synonym: Umbelliferae.
Diagnostic family characters
Leaves:. Usually dissected with sheathing petiole bases. The degree of dissection is fairly plastic in some species (varying from one habitat to another). Basal leaves are common.
Stems: Internodes generally hollow.
Flowers: Perfect, 5-merous, separate petals, actinomorphic, in umbels, inferior 2 fused carpels.
Fruits: Schizocarps (split into two one-seeded segments).
Ethereal oils, resins or gums present throughout. Often aromatic, in many cases toxic (surficially or internally). This family is said to include the Hemlock of which Socrates drank while his students wept.
Habit: Herbs, with some coarse, tall ‘shrubs’.

Take a close look at the fruits on the parsley plant in the back of the room. Although schizocarps are found in many angiosperm families, the highly scented, striated fruits found on many members of the parsley family are pretty distinctive.

Key out species 131: Daucus carota 'Queen Anne's lace,' 'Wild carrot'
This is a common species of roadsides and oldfields. You can make soup out of the root, but chewing it may make your jaws hurt.

Araliaceae, the Ginseng family.
Diagnostic family characters
Leaves:. similar to Apiaceae.
Stems: similar to Apiaceae.
Flowers: Perfect, 5-merous, separate petals, actinomorphic, in umbels, inferior 5 fused carpels.
Fruits: Berries.
Ethereal oils, resins or gums present throughout.
Habit: Herbs, coarse ‘shrubs’, vines, or trees in tropics.

Key out species 132: Aralia nudicaulis 'Wild sarsaparilla'
This is a forest herb with prominent rhizomes... look for it in the Baraboo Hills if your site is there.

Adoxaceae, the Viburnum family.
Diagnostic family characters
Leaves: Simple or compound, opposite, without stipules.
Flowers: Zygomorphic, with floral tubes constricted below the calyx lobes, short styles
Fruits: Berries, drupes. The berries of some common shrubs in this family are much beloved of birds.
Habit: Shrubs, sometimes perennial herbs.

Key out species 133: Viburnum lentago 'nannyberry'
This tall shrub or small tree (up to 10m) is found in woods and along roadsides. This genus (and the next) was traditionally placed in Caprifoliaceae. The latter family, however, has long styles.

Key out species 134: Sambucus canadensis 'Elderberry,' 'American elder'
Note the pith in the stems of this thicket-forming shrub (< 3m).

 

ADDITIONAL SPECIES TO LEARN:

135. Osmorhiza longistylis (Apiaceae) 'Long-styled sweet cicely'
Both the common name and the specific epithet of this species refer to the relative size of the styles. Compared to other Osmorhiza, the 2 mm long styles, which extend well beyond the petals, are quite long. Like many other Osmorhiza this one is anise scented, the roots may be sweet and licorice flavored and allegedly "can be used in teas, stews, and soups." Keep in mind that many members of this family are poisonous.

136. Panax quinquefolius (Araliaceae) 'American ginseng'
Along with related Chinese ginseng, this distinctive woodland herb has been heavily exploited for its medicinal and putative aphrodisiac properties – concentrated in its rhizome. The species is now on the Wisconsin “special concern” list. Found throughout Wisconsin, the perennial herb with five-leaflet (‘quinquefolius’) leaves look like no other species. The umbels of red berries make the plants stand out later in the summer.

137. Lonicera x bella (Caprifoliaceae) 'hybrid Honeysuckle'
This hybrid between Lonicera tatarica and L. morrowii is recognized as a “hybrid species.” It is given its own name but notice the “x” between the genus and the specific epithet, this is the accepted practice when naming hybrids. It can be very difficult to distinguish specimens as either L. tatarica or L. morrowii as individual plants may carry varying amounts of genetic material of each species, hence it is easier to lump them as Lonicera X bella.

 

GENERA TO LEARN:

138. Sanicula (Apiaceae) 'Black snakeroot' or' Black sanicle'
This is a genus of small herbaceous perennials in our woodlands – often overlooked; of the 40 species worldwide, 22 occur in North America and 4 in Wisconsin. The species produce bristly fruits. Natives used the powdered root of S. canadensis to make a tea which treated kidney ailments fevers, rheumatism, and menstrual irregularities. Snakebites were also treated with the crushed root of the plant – the source of its common name. Our species our spring to early summer flowering.

139. Diervilla (Caprifoliaceae) 'Bush-honeysuckle'
The only species in this genus found in WI is Diervilla lonicera. It is a small deciduous shrub that usually grows close to the ground, no taller than 4 feet. It is insect pollinated, commonly by bumblebees. The flowers bloom from early June to early July. It also commonly reproduces asexually by underground rhizomes forming widely-scattered clonal patches. It is an important food source for white-tailed deer.

140. Dipsacus (Caprifoliaceae, former Dipsacaceae) 'Teasel'
This purple flowered ornamental is native to Europe and Asia. Amazingly, we do not have a collection of it in the student herbarium. Apart from being a common garden ornamental the dried flower heads are sometimes used in flower arrangements and were in the past used for "raising a nap on cloth," the nap being a special surface on fabric made by raising the short fibers. This may be what the common name comes from.