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Vascular Flora of Wisconsin - Botany 401
Spring 2014

Exams

Your first exam is coming! Monday and Tuesday, February 28 - March 1, lab exams will be conducted during regular lab period. The exams are closed-book except for the keying exercises. This is a pretty typical lab exam format: many stations to visit, with questions heavily emphasizing things you can see and often touch. Most questions on the exam will be short answer. Many will simply involve writing the correct scientific or common name for an herbarium specimen, live plant, or flower.

Lecture material will be integrated into the exam as short answer, matching, true/false, and essay. Familial and generic characteristics introduced in lecture will only be covered if we also saw those families or genera in lab.

Each of the three exams (including this one) is worth 80 of the total 400 points towards your final grade in this course.

Fair game for the exam:

1. All species, genera, common names, and families listed on the handouts, including the ones you keyed out - see below for 'Master List' You should be able to identify any plant we show you and also identify the characteristics that set it apart. Recall that scientific names and genera are underlined (or italicized if typed); and family names are capitalized but not underlined.

2. Gross (that is "general" !) characteristics of families and genera. This includes lecture materials and lab materials. It also includes family characteristics that you would come across in the keys.

3. Floral and vegetative features. Be able to identify them on plants. You should, for instance, be able to answer a "What is this structure?" question as well as a "Which one of these flowers has a hypanthium?" question. Be familiar with all terms presented on the floral morphology handout as well as terms that have showed up in the keys. You should be familiar with those vegetative morphology terms that pertain to the plants we have looked at in lab as well as in the literature (G&C and Fassett). You should be familiar with floral formulas; both creating them and interpreting them.

4. Keying. Be able to key out any plant you see using G&C, Fassett, or the conifer / vascular cryptogam keys handed out. You will most likely need to use G & C to key out plants on the exam, lab copies will be available but you may also bring your own.

5. Lecture material. Ideas and concepts raised in lecture pertaining to the flora, vegetation of Wisconsin.These could involve biogeographical patterns, unusual phylogenetic relationships, nomenclatural issues, breeding systems, pollination biology, ecological adaptations, endangered species, invasive species.

Good luck! Please let us know if you have any questions.

Master list of plants to know

You are responsible for all families, genera, species, and common names listed below.

You are responsible to know information about the 8 highlighted family(ies) from each lab (in red below).

You are not responsible for knowing orders, phyla, or superordinal angiosperm classification (e.g. "basal angiosperms," "rosids," "caryophyllids").

 

Vascular cryptogams

Polypodiophyta

Adiantum pedatum (Adiantaceae) 'Maidenhair fern'
Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae) 'Rattlesnake fern'
Onoclea sensibilis (Onocleaceae) 'Sensitive fern'
Polypodium virginianum (Polypodiaceae) 'Rock-cap fern'
Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) 'Bracken fern.'
Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) 'Marsh fern'

Lycopodiophyta

Huperzia lucidulum (Lycopodiaceae) 'Shining clubmoss'
Isoetes
(Isoetaceae) 'Quillwort'
Selaginella (Selaginellaceae) 'Spikemoss'

Equisetophyta

Equisetum (Equisetaceae) 'Horsetail'

Gymnosperms

Cupressaceae

Juniperus (Cupressaceae) 'Juniper'
Thuja occidentalis (Cupressaceae) 'Northern white cedar,' 'Eastern arborvitae'

Ginkgoaceae

Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) 'Ginkgo,' 'Maidenhair'

Pinaceae

Abies balsamea (Pinaceae) 'Balsam fir'
Larix (Pinaceae) 'Tamarack,' 'Larch'
Picea (Pinaceae) 'Spruce'
Pinus banksiana (Pinaceae) 'Jack pine'
Pinus strobus (Pinaceae) 'White pine'
Tsuga canadensis (Pinaceae) 'Eastern hemlock'

Taxaceae

Taxus (Taxaceae) 'Yew'

Basal angiosperms

Aristolochiaceae

Asarum canadense (Aristolochiaceae) 'Wild ginger'

Ceratophyllaceae [actually considered sister to the eudicots, if you are interested]

Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae) 'Coon tail'

Magnoliaceae

Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) 'Magnolia'

Nymphaeaceae

Nuphar variegatum (Nymphaeaceae) 'Yellow pond lily,' 'Spatterdock'
Nymphaea (Nymphaeceae) 'White water-lily'

Basal eudicots (Proteales, Ranunculales)

Berberidaceae

Caulophyllum (Berberidaceae) 'Blue Cohosh'
Jeffersonia diphylla (Berberidaceae) 'Twinleaf'
Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae) 'May-apple,' 'Mandrake'

Nelumbonaceae

Nelumbo lutea (Nelumbonaceae) 'American lotus-lily,' 'Water-chinquapin'

Papaveraceae

Chelidonium (Papaveraceae) 'Celandine'
Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) 'Bloodroot'
Dicentra (Papaveraceae) 'Fumitory'

Platanaceae

Platanus (Platanaceae) 'Plane tree,' 'Sycamore'

Ranunculaceae

Anemone (formerly Hepatica) (Ranunculaceae) 'Hepatica,' 'Liver leaf'
Anemone quinquefolia (Ranunculaceae) 'Wood anemone'
Aquilegia canadensis (Ranunculaceae) 'Columbine'
Caltha palustris (Ranunculaceae) 'Marsh marigold'
Enemion (formerly Isopyrum) (Ranunculaceae) 'False rue anemone'
Ranunculus hispidus (Ranunculaceae) 'Swamp buttercup'
Thalictrum dasycarpum (Ranunculaceae) 'Purple meadow-rue'

Caryophyllids

Amaranthaceae (includes former Chenopodiaceae)

Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) 'Amaranth'
Chenopodium album (Amaranthaceae) 'Lamb's quarters'

Cactaceae

Opuntia (Cactaceae) 'Prickly-pear'

Caryophyllaceae

Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) 'Bouncing bet'
Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae) 'White campion' 'Bladder campion'

Droseraceae

Drosera rotundifolia (Droseraceae) 'Round-leaved sundew'

Montiaceae (formerly Portulacaceae)

Claytonia virginica (Montiaceae) 'Spring beauty'

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca (Phytolaccaceae) 'Pokeweed'

Polygonaceae

Persicaria (Polygonaceae) 'Knotweed,' 'Smartweed'
Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae) 'Sour dock'

Rosids

Cannabaceae

Cannabis (Cannabaceae) 'Hemp' plus many other common names

Crassulaceae

Sedum (Crassulaceae) 'Stonecrop'

Cucurbitaceae

Echinocystis lobata (Cucurbitaceae) 'Wild cucumber'

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia virgata [formerly E. esula] (Euphorbiaceae) 'Leafy spurge'

Fabaceae

Lupinus perennis (Fabaceae) 'Wild lupine'
Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae) 'Black locust'
Trifolium (Fabaceae) 'Clover'

Grossulariaceae

Ribes americanum (Grossulariaceae) 'Eastern Black Currant'

Hamamelidaceae

Hamamelis virginiana (Hamamelidaceae) 'American witch-hazel'

Hypericaceae

Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae) 'Common St. John's-wort'

Moraceae

Morus alba (Moraceae) 'White mulberry'

Rhamnaceae

Ceanothus americanus (Rhamnaceae) 'New Jersey Tea'

Rosaceae

Agrimonia gryposepala (Rosaceae) 'Common agrimony'
Geum (Rosaceae) 'Avens'
Malus (Rosaceae) 'Apple,' 'Crabapple'
Potentilla (Rosaceae) 'Cinquefoil,' 'Potentilla'
Prunus serotina (Rosaceae) 'Wild black cherry'
Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae) 'Multiflora rose'
Rubus (Rosaceae) 'Bramble,' 'Raspberry,' 'Blackberry'
Spiraea tomentosa (Rosaceae) 'Hardhack,' 'Steeple bush'

Salicaceae

Populus tremuloides (Salicaceae) 'Quaking aspen'
Salix (Salicaceae) 'Willow'

Saxifragaceae

Heuchera richardsonii (Saxifragaceae) 'Prairie alumroot'
Mitella (Saxifragaceae) 'Bishop's-cap,' 'Miterwort'

Ulmaceae

Ulmus americana (Ulmaceae) 'American elm'

Urticaceae

Urtica (Urticaceae) 'Nettle'

Violaceae

Viola pubescens (Violaceae) 'Yellow violet'
Viola sororia (Violaceae) 'Common blue violet'

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus (Vitaceae) 'Virginia creeper'
Vitis (Vitaceae) 'wild grape'