Exams

 Lecture exam 1

 Lecture exam 2

 Lecture exam 3

 Laboratory exam 1

 Laboratory exam 2

 Laboratory exam 3

Lecture and laboratory exams will cover approximately one-third of the class material each time. The class covers quite a bit of material, but the coverage is supposed to add depth to main ideas and concepts. Thus, use the guidelines or review sheets below to get a feel for the most the most important parts of each section and what details to add to round out the key ideas and concepts.

Lectures will typically include a little of each of the following: definitions, short answers, matching, true/false, problem solving, and essays. Use the link to see an example of a typical lecture 1 exam. Laboratory exams will test for general knowledge of the plant groups or structures examined, identification of genera and families required for each lab, and skill in using keys.


Lecture 1 Exam Study Sheet

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Exam on Monday, Oct. 2, will cover all lectures through and including Wednesday, Sep. 27. Note: there are 3 special readings for this exam - available in Canvas. Get set of possible questions for Exam 1

 I. What is systematics - Read Daly et al. 2012 paper

A. parts of systematics
B. goals of systematics

 II. Floral structure (in detail!)

A. know terms
B. Foliar theory of flower vs. other theory
C. know modifications of basic (4 whorls present, no fusion) flower

 III. Nomenclature - Read Payne 2016 paper

A. common names (advantages, disadvantages)
B. scientific names and what they are made of
C. rules on nomenclature (some we talked about); especially synonymy
D. type method: what is it and how does it wor

 IV. Classification

A. History: know periods, important people, and what they contributed
B. types of classification systems
C. artificial vs. natural vs. phylogenetic
D. how evolutionary theory has been incorporated into natural systems
E. know basics of Cronquist's scheme with the Besseyan ideas behind it
F. how do "folk" classifications compare with "scientific" classifications?
G. problems associated with any classification

 V. Rise of Angiosperms - Read Saquet et al. 2017 paper

A. what is the "abominable mystery"
B. fossil evidence bearing on this problem?
C. primitive flowers, inflorescences?
D. most ancient angiosperm?
E. closest relative to angiosperm?
F. DNA evidence on these problems

G. Recent morphological evidence on these problems (read Saquet paper)
H. What problems remain unsolved in the "abominable mystery"?

 VI. Review angiosperm groups covered (Floral formulas and info as pdf)

A. Basal angiosperms (covered in lecture and lab - monocots not covered yet)

1. know major characters of this group; how does it relate to Bessey's order "Ranales" or to Cronquist's subclass Magnoliidae?
2. know difference between this group and Eudicots
3. families to know important vegetative, floral, fruit, inflorescence characters and other tidbits of information mentioned with these families (chemicals, biogeography, or other unusual features)

a. Amborellaceae
b. Magnoliaceae
c. Annonaceae
d. Aristolochiaceae
e. Nymphaeaceae

B.  Basal Eudicots (in part - Proteales not required to know)

1. Ranunculids = Ranunculales

2. families to know important vegetative, floral, fruit, inflorescence characters and other tidbits of information

a. Ranunculaceae
b. Berberidaceae
c. Papaveraceae


Laboratory 1 Exam Study Sheet

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 Laboratory practical will be given in laboratory during week 5, Oct. 3 - Oct. 5, and covers labs 1-4.

A. Bring Field Manual of Michigan Flora if you have it

B. Recognize and be able to identify by genus and common name the 8 genera of conifers (use herbarium sheets and slide images for review)

C. Know and identify floral parts and modifications in general (review tobacco, fuchsia, and snapdragon dissections)

D. Know what floral formulas are saying

E. Recognize certain mentioned fruit and inflorescence types from Basal angiosperms and Ranunculids

F. Recognize floral features from dissected or demonstration material of Basal angiosperms and Ranunculids

G. Recognize and be able to identify by genus, family, common name the required plants from the Basal angiosperms and Ranunculids

H. Know how to use keys and glossary in Field Manual of Michigan Flora and be able to key out an unknown plant species if given the genus

I. Review handout on plant collections


Lecture 2 Exam Study Sheet

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Exam on Monday, Nov. 6, will cover all lectures from Friday, Sep. 29 (Chemosystematics), through and including Monday, Oct. 30 (pollination biology). Format will be very similar to that of Exam 1. Note: there are 3 special readings for this exam - available in Canvas. Get set of possible questions for Exam 2

 I. Review angiosperm groups covered

Get floral formulas for Caryophyllids & Rosids

Go to lecture powerpoints

     A. Caryophyllales - the Caryophyllids

1. characters defining the core families (the "Centrospermae")

2. families to know important vegetative, floral, fruit, inflorescence characters and other tidbits of information

a. Caryophyllaceae
b. Amaranthaceae
c. Portulacaceae
d. Cactaceae
e. Phytolaccaceae

f. family Polygonaceae characters (know ocrea character)

     B.  Saxifragales (basal Rosid?)

1.  Order Saxifragales - what defines this set of families?

2.  families to know important vegetative, floral, fruit, inflorescence characters and other tidbits of information

a. Saxifragaceae
b. Crassulaceae

      C.  Rosids

1.  How is the new Rosid group different from the Rosid group of Cronquist? How do you separate the Rosids from the Asterids?

2.  Eight orders are fairly natural groupings and were stressed in lecture. Know how these orders are defined morphologically.

Rosales, Fabales, Fagales, Malpighiales, Sapindales, Malvales, Brassicales, and Myrtales [note: the ordinal features of Fabales and Malvales are the same for their two required families: Fabaceae and Malvaceae]

3.  Families to know important vegetative, floral, fruit, inflorescence characters and other tidbits of information

Rosaceae [and subfamilies], Ulmaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae [in the broad sense, with subfamilies], Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Betulaceae, Violaceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Sapindaceae, Malvaceae, Brassicaceae, Onagraceae

4.  Know which groups have N-fixing members.

5.  Fruit types and from what kinds of gynoecia/flowers/inflorescence they derive: follicle, achene, aggregate of achenes, drupe, pome, multiple fruit (syconium), pepo, nut, samara, capsule, silique/silicle

 II. Chemosystematics - Read Edger et al. 2015 paper

A. morphology vs. molecules
B. main micromolecules

1. flavonoids and systematic use

2. anthocyanins vs. betalains and systematic use (order Caryophyllales or Centrospermae)

what do we now know about relationships with the order Caryophyllales or Centrospermae? and does this knowledge impact on the systematic use of betalains?

3. mustard oils (also called glucosinolates or isothiocyanates) and their systematic use (order Capparales)  

why were the mustard oil plants always considered a hodge podge of different orders and subclasses? what does the molecular evidence indicate about the evolution of mustard oil biosynthetic pathways? Read Edger et al. 2015 paper to find out how DNA resolved the issue of the origin of mustard oil and what has spurred species diversification in both these plants and butterflies that feed on them

 III. Evolution - Read Rieseberg et al. 2006 paper

A. Evolution (define) and variation (what kinds are there?)

B. Driving forces in evolution (natural selection, genetic drift)

C. Natural variation within plant species and adaptation, clines, and ecotypes

D. Biological species concept and isolating mechanisms: know the importance of reproductive isolation, what kinds of isolating mechanisms work in plants? Are plant species actually discrete (read Rieseberg et al. 2006 paper)?

E. Speciation (geographical, quantum, hybrid, polyploid): know the differences, examples, relative importance of these in plants

 IV. Phylogenetics

A. Know differences between phenetics and cladistics, phenogram vs. cladogram

B. History of the different phylogenetic methods

C. Terminology with the two main approaches (review terms in handout sheet - just the important ones mentioned in class)

D. Concepts of homology, convergence, parsimony, homoplasy

E. Monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly (have an example of each from lecture)


 V.  Pollination Biology - Read Seranno-Seranno et al. paper

A. Know basics of the most common pollination syndromes (i.e. wind, hymenopterans, birds)

B. Know the fig wasp story

C. What does molecular phylogenetics tell us about role of pollination switches in generating species diversity in the African violet family? (read Seranno-Seranno et al. paper)


Laboratory 2 Exam Study Sheet

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 Laboratory practical will be given in laboratory during week 10, Nov. 7-9

 Laboratory practical covers Caryophyllids, Rosid I, Rosid II; not Phylogenetics

 

A. Recognize certain mentioned fruit and inflorescence types from Caryophyllids, basal Rosids and Rosids

B. Recognize floral features from dissected or demonstration material of Caryophyllids, basal Rosids and Rosids

C. Know the differences well among the four subfamilies of Rosaceae and Fabaceae

D. Recognize and be able to identify by genus, family, common name the required plants from the three groups

E. Know how to use keys and glossary in Field Manual of Michigan Flora and be able to key out an unknown plant species, even if the genus or perhaps family is not given


 

Lecture 3 Exam Study Sheet

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Exam on Wednesday, Dec. 13, will cover all lectures from Wednesday, Nov. 1 (Plant Oddities and Systematic Puzzles) through and including Monday, Dec. 11. Note: there are 3 special readings for this exam - available in Canvas. Get set of possible questions for Exam 3

 

 I. Review angiosperm groups covered

      A.  Asterids:   Get floral formulas for Asterids

1.  How is this group now defined in terms of flowers, chemicals, anatomical characters? How is it differentiated from the Rosids? In what ways are the Lower Asterids more intermediate between Rosids and Asterids? How are the basal asterids differentiated from the euasterids? Do not worry about knowing what ties together the orders.

2.  Families to know important vegetative, floral, fruit, inflorescence characters and other tidbits of information

Ericaceae (broad sense), Primulaceae, Cornaceae, Gentianaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae (in the broad, Cronquistian sense, but know how it is now broken up in APG and why), Apiaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Asteraceae (know this one well!)

      B.  Monocots:   Get floral formulas for 10 monocot families

1.  Know the basic groups that have been mentioned and how to recognize them (Alismatales - aquatics + aroids, lilioids, commelinoids); know vegetative, floral, and pollination biology trends in the monocots (especially in different lineages). Which groups are monophyletic and which ones are not? Be clear on how the inflorescence and flowers has been modified (reduced) repeatedly in different lines of monocots.

2.  Review discussion on the origin of monocots, nature of the monocot leaf, and primitive monocots; and how molecular data has impacted on these ideas & what major groups they define.

3.  10 Families to know important vegetative, floral, fruit, inflorescence characters and other tidbits of information

Acoraceae, Araceae, Liliaceae (sensu Cronquist, realize that is now broken up in APG and why), Iridaceae, Orchidaceae, Arecaceae, Bromeliaceae, Juncaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae

 II.  Special lectures

Carnivores, Parasites & Saprotrophs; Biogeography; Molecular Systematics; and Adaptive Radiation should be reviewed (see study questions).

Read the paper: Davis et al 2007 - Floral gigantism in a parasite

Read the paper: Givnish et al 2015 - Drivers of diversification in orchid family

Read the paper: Crisp et al 2009 - Phylogenetic biome conservatism


 

Laboratory 3 Exam Study Sheet

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 Laboratory practical will be given in laboratory during week 15, Dec. 12-15 (special times made available for Thu lab)

 Laboratory practical covers Asterids I, Asterids II, and Monocots

A. Recognize certain mentioned fruit and inflorescence types from these groups

B. Recognize floral features from dissected or demonstration material of of these groups

C. Recognize and be able to identify by genus, family, common name the required plants from the three groups

D. Know how to use keys and glossary in Field Manual of Michigan Flora and be able to key out an unknown plant species, even if the genus or perhaps family is not given

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