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Family: Scrophulariaceae
  Genus: Agalinis

    Agalinis aspera (Douglas ex Benth.) Britton*+
        rough agalinis, rough false foxglove, tall false foxglove
             Gerardia aspera Douglas ex Benth.
    Agalinis gattingeri (Small) Small*+
        round-stem foxglove, round-stemmed false foxglove
             Gerardia gattingeri Small
    Agalinis paupercula (A.Gray) Britton*
        small-flowered false foxglove, smooth false foxglove
    Agalinis paupercula (A.Gray) Britton var. borealis Pennell*+
        small-flowered false foxglove, smooth false foxglove
             Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell subsp. parviflora
             Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell var. parviflora (Benth.) B.Boivin
             Gerardia paupercula (A.Gray) Britton subsp. borealis
             Gerardia paupercula (A.Gray) Britton var. borealis (Pennell) Deam
             Gerardia purpurea L. var. parviflora Benth.
    Agalinis paupercula (A.Gray) Britton var. paupercula
        small-flowered false foxglove, smooth false foxglove
             Gerardia paupercula (A.Gray) Britton
             Gerardia paupercula (A.Gray) Britton var. typica Pennell
             Gerardia purpurea L. var. paupercula A.Gray
    Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell*+
        purple false foxglove, smooth agalinis
             Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell var. carteri Pennell
             Gerardia purpurea L.
             Gerardia purpurea L. subsp. parvula
             Gerardia purpurea L. var. carteri (Pennell) Pennell
             Gerardia purpurea L. var. grandiflora Benth.
    Agalinis skinneriana (A.W.Wood) Britton*+
        pale false foxglove, Skinner's false foxglove
             Gerardia skinneriana A.W.Wood
    Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf.*+
        common agalinis, common false foxglove
             Agalinis besseyana (Britton) Britton
             Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf. var. macrophylla (Benth.) S.F.Blake
             Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf. var. parviflora (Nutt.) Pennell
             Gerardia besseyana Britton
             Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl
             Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl subsp. macrophylla
             Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl subsp. parviflora
             Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl var. humilis Benth.
             Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl var. macrophylla Benth.
             Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl var. parviflora Nutt.
             Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl var. typica Pennell
  Genus: Antirrhinum

    Antirrhinum majus L.*+
        common snapdragon, garden snapdragon
  Genus: Aureolaria

    Aureolaria flava (L.) Farw.*
        smooth yellow false foxglove
    Aureolaria grandiflora (Benth.) Pennell
        large-flowered yellow false foxglove, western false foxglove
    Aureolaria grandiflora (Benth.) Pennell var. pulchra Pennell*+
        large-flowered yellow false foxglove
             Aureolaria grandiflora (Benth.) Pennell subsp. pulchra
             Gerardia grandiflora Benth. var. pulchra (Pennell) Fernald
    Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf.*+
        annual false foxglove, clammy false foxglove
    Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. var. ambigens (Fernald) Farw.
        annual false foxglove, clammy false foxglove, fern-leaf yellow false foxglove
             Agalinis pedicularia (L.) S.F.Blake var. ambigens (Fernald) S.F.Blake
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. subsp. ambigens
             Gerardia pedicularia L. var. ambigens Fernald
    Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. var. intercedens Pennell
        annual false foxglove, clammy false foxglove, fern-leaf yellow false foxglove
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. subsp. intercedens
             Gerardia pedicularia L. var. intercedens (Pennell) Fernald
    Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. var. pedicularia
        annual false foxglove, clammy false foxglove, fern-leaf yellow false foxglove
             Agalinis pedicularia (L.) S.F.Blake
             Agalinis pedicularia (L.) S.F.Blake var. caesariensis (Pennell) S.F.Blake
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. subsp. caesariensis
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. subsp. carolinensis
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. subsp. typica
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. var. caesariensis (Pennell) Pennell
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. var. carolinensis (Pennell) Pennell
             Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. var. typica (Pennell) Deam
             Dasistoma pedicularia (L.) Benth.
             Gerardia pedicularia L.
  Genus: Bacopa

    Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst.*+
        disc water-hyssop
             Bacopa nobsiana H.Mason
             Bacopa simulans Fernald
             Bramia rotundifolia (Michx.) Britton
             Hydranthelium rotundifolium (Michx.) Pennell
             Macuillamia rotundifolia (Michx.) Raf.
             Moniera rotundifolia Michx.
  Genus: Besseya

    Besseya bullii (Eaton) Rydb.*+
        bull's coral-drops, kitten's-tails
             Gymnandra bullii Eaton
             Synthyris bullii (Eaton) A.Heller
             Wulfenia bullii (Eaton) Barnhart
  Genus: Castilleja

    Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng.*+
        Indian paintbrush, scarlet painted-cup
             Bartsia coccinea L.
             Bartsia coccinea L. var. pallens Michx.
             Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. f. alba Farw.
             Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. f. lutescens Farw.
             Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. f. pallens (Michx.) Pennell
    Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh*+
        downy yellow painted-cup, downy paintbrush, downy painted-cup
  Genus: Chaenorhinum

    Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange*+
        dwarf snapdragon, lesser toadflax, small snapdragon
             Linaria minor (L.) Desf.
  Genus: Chelone

    Chelone glabra L.*+
        turtlehead, white turtlehead
             Chelone chlorantha Pennell & Wherry
             Chelone glabra L. f. tomentosa (Raf.) Pennell
             Chelone glabra L. var. chlorantha (Pennell & Wherry) Cooperr.
             Chelone glabra L. var. dilatata Fernald & Wiegand
             Chelone glabra L. var. elatior Raf.
             Chelone glabra L. var. elongata Pennell & Wherry
             Chelone glabra L. f. velutina Pennell & Wherry var. linifolia N.Coleman
             Chelone glabra L. var. linifolia N.Coleman
             Chelone glabra L. var. ochroleuca Pennell & Wherry
             Chelone glabra L. var. typica Pennell
             Chelone montana (Raf.) Pennell & Wherry
             Chlonanthus montana Raf.
             Chlonanthus tomentosa Raf.
    Chelone obliqua L.
        purple turtlehead, red turtlehead
    Chelone obliqua L. var. speciosa Pennell & Wherry*
        purple turtlehead, red turtlehead
  Genus: Collinsia

    Collinsia verna Nutt.+
        eastern blue-eyed-Mary, spring blue-eyed-Mary
  Genus: Cymbalaria

    Cymbalaria muralis Gaertn., G.Mey. & Scherb.*
        coliseum-ivy, Kenilworth-ivy
             Linaria cymbalaria (L.) Mill.
  Genus: Dasistoma

    Dasistoma macrophylla (Nutt.) Raf.+
        mullein-foxglove
             Afzelia macrophylla (Nutt.) Kuntze
             Seymeria macrophylla Nutt.
  Genus: Digitalis

    Digitalis grandiflora Mill
        yellow foxglove
             Digitalis ambigua Murr.
             Digitalis orientalis Mill.
    Digitalis lanata Ehrh.+
        Grecian foxglove
    Digitalis lutea L.
        straw foxglove
    Digitalis purpurea L.*+
        common foxglove, purple foxglove
             Digitalis purpurea L. var. purpurea
  Genus: Euphrasia

    Euphrasia stricta D.Wolff ex J.F.Lehm.+
        drug eye-bright
  Genus: Gratiola

    Gratiola aurea Pursh*+
        golden-pert, golden hedge-hyssop, yellow hedge-hyssop
             Gratiola aurea Pursh f. aurea
             Gratiola aurea Pursh f. pusilla Fassett
             Gratiola aurea Pursh var. obtusa Pennell
             Gratiola lutea Raf.
             Gratiola lutea Raf. f. pusilla (Fassett) Pennell
    Gratiola neglecta Torr.*+
        clammy hedge-hyssop
             Gratiola neglecta Torr. var. glaberrima Fernald
  Genus: Kickxia

    Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort.+
        sharp-leaved cancerwort
             Antirrhinum elatine L.
             Linaria elatine (L.) Mill.
    Kickxia spuria (L.) Dumort.+
        round-leaved cancerwort
             Antirrhinum spurium L.
             Linaria spuria (L.) Mill.
  Genus: Linaria

    Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum.Cours.
        annual toadflax, blue toadflax, Canada toadflax
    Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum.Cours. var. canadensis *+
        annual toadflax, blue toadflax, Canada toadflax
             Antirrhinum canadense L.
             Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D.A.Sutton
    Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.*+
        Dalmatian toadflax
             Antirrhinum dalmaticum L.
             Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. subsp. dalmatica
             Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill., sensu Salamun (1951)
             Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. subsp. dalmatica
    Linaria vulgaris Mill.*+
        butter-and-eggs
             Linaria linaria (L.) H.Karst.
  Genus: Lindernia

    Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell*+
        false pimpernel, moist bank pimpernel
    Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooperr.+
        false pimpernel, yellow-seed false pimpernel
             Gratiola anagallidea Michx.
             Ilysanthes inequalis (Walter) Pennell
             Lindernia anagallidea (Michx.) Pennell
    Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. dubia +
        false pimpernel, moist bank pimpernel, yellow-seed false pimpernel
             Gratiola attenuata Spreng.
             Gratiola dubia L.
             Ilysanthes attenuata (Spreng.) Small
             Ilysanthes dubia (L.) Barnhart
             Ilysanthes gratioloides Benth. var. depressa Suksd.
             Ilysanthes riparia Raf.
             Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. major (Pursh) Pennell
             Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. riparia (Raf.) Fernald
             Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. typica Pennell
             Lindernia procumbens auct. non (Krock.) Philcox
             Lindernia pyxidaria sensu Pennell, non L.
             Lindernia pyxidaria L. var. major Pursh
  Genus: Mazus

    Mazus pumilus (Burm.f.) Steenis*+
        Asian mazus, Japanese mazus
             Lobelia pumila Burm.f.
             Mazus japonicus (Thunb.) Kuntze
  Genus: Melampyrum

    Melampyrum lineare Desr.*+
        narrow-leaved cow-wheat
    Melampyrum lineare Desr. var. americanum (Michx.) Beauverd
        American cow-wheat, narrow-leaved cow-wheat
             Melampyrum americanum Michx.
    Melampyrum lineare Desr. var. latifolium Barton
        cow-wheat
             Melampyrum latifolium (Barton) Muhl. ex Britton
    Melampyrum lineare Desr. var. lineare
        American cow-wheat, narrow-leaved cow-wheat
  Genus: Mimulus

    Mimulus glabratus Kunth
        round-leaved monkey-flower
    Mimulus glabratus Kunth var. jamesii (Torr. & A.Gray ex Benth.) A.Gray*+
        James' monkey-flower, round-leaved monkey-flower
             Mimulus geyeri Torr.
             Mimulus glabratus Kunth var. fremontii (Benth.) A.L.Grant
             Mimulus inamoenus Greene
             Mimulus jamesii Torr. & A.Gray ex Benth.
             Mimulus jamesii Torr. & A.Gray ex Benth. var. fremontii Benth.
             Mimulus reniformis Engelm. ex Benth.
    Mimulus moschatus Douglas
        musky monkey-flower
    Mimulus ringens L.
        Allegheny monkey-flower, monkey-flower
    Mimulus ringens L. var. ringens *+
        Allegheny monkey-flower, monkey-flower
             Mimulus minthodes Greene
             Mimulus pallidus Salisb.
             Mimulus ringens L. f. roseus Fassett
             Mimulus ringens L. var. congesta Farw.
             Mimulus ringens L. var. minthodes (Greene) A.L.Grant
  Genus: Odontites

    Odontites verna (Bellardi) Dumort.
        odontites
    Odontites verna (Bellardi) Dumort. subsp. serotina*+
        odontites, red bartsia
             Odontites serotina Dumort.
  Genus: Pedicularis

    Pedicularis canadensis L.
        Canadian lousewort, forest lousewort, wood-betony
    Pedicularis canadensis L. subsp. canadensis*+
        Canadian lousewort, forest lousewort, wood-betony
             Pedicularis canadensis L. f. flava Farw.
             Pedicularis canadensis L. f. praeclara A.H.Moore
             Pedicularis canadensis L. var. dobbsii Fernald subsp. canadensis
             Pedicularis canadensis L. var. dobbsii Fernald
    Pedicularis lanceolata Michx.*+
        fen betony, swamp betony, swamp-lousewort
             Pedicularis auriculata Sm.
             Pedicularis pallida Nutt.
             Pedicularis virginica Poir.
  Genus: Penstemon

    Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims*+
        false foxglove, foxglove beard-tongue, tall beard-tongue, tall white beard-tongue
             Penstemon laevigatus Aiton f. digitalis (Nutt. ex Sims) A.Gray
             Penstemon laevigatus Aiton subsp. digitalis
             Penstemon laevigatus Aiton var. angulatus R.W.Benn.
    Penstemon gracilis Nutt.*+
        lilac penstemon, slender beard-tongue
    Penstemon grandiflorus Nutt.*+
        large beard-tongue, large-flowered beard-tongue
             Penstemon bradburii Pursh
    Penstemon gracilis Nutt. subsp. gracilis+
        lilac penstemon, slender beard-tongue
             Penstemon gracilis Nutt. var. gracilis
    Penstemon gracilis Nutt. subsp. wisconsinensis*+
        Wisconsin beard-tongue, Wisconsin penstemon
             Penstemon gracilis Nutt. var. wisconsinensis (Pennell) Fassett
             Penstemon wisconsinensis Pennell
    Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd.*+
        hairy beard-tongue, northeastern beard-tongue
             Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. var. minimus R.W.Benn.
             Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. var. pygmaeus R.W.Benn.
    Penstemon pallidus Small+
        eastern white beard-tongue, pale beard-tongue
             Penstemon arkansanus Pennell var. pubescens Pennell
             Penstemon brevisepalus Pennell
    Penstemon tubaeflorus Nutt.+
        tube beard-tongue, tube penstemon, white wand beard-tongue
             Penstemon tubaeflorus Nutt. var. tubaeflorus
  Genus: Rhinanthus

    Rhinanthus minor L.
        little yellow-rattle
    Rhinanthus minor L. subsp. minor*+
        cock's-comb rhinanthus, little yellow-rattle
             Rhinanthus borealis Druce subsp. kyrolliae
             Rhinanthus crista-galli L., pro parte
             Rhinanthus crista-galli L. var. fallax (Wimm. & Grab.) Druce
             Rhinanthus kyrolliae Chabert
             Rhinanthus rigidus Chabert
             Rhinanthus stenophyllus (Schur) Schinz & Thell.
  Genus: Scrophularia

    Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh*+
        American figwort, early figwort, lance-leaf figwort
             Scrophularia leporella E.P.Bicknell
             Scrophularia pectinata Raf.
    Scrophularia marilandica L.*+
        carpenter's-square, eastern figwort, late figwort
             Scrophularia marilandica L. f. neglecta (Rydb. ex Small) Pennell
             Scrophularia neglecta Rydb. ex Small
  Genus: Tomanthera

    Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf.*+
        eared false foxglove, ear-leaved gerardia
             Agalinis auriculata (Michx.) S.F.Blake
             Aureolaria auriculata (Michx.) Farw.
             Gerardia auriculata Michx.
             Otophylla auriculata (Michx.) Small
  Genus: Verbascum

    Verbascum blattaria L.*+
        moth mullein
             Verbascum blattaria L. f. albiflorum (G.Don) House
             Verbascum blattaria L. var. albiflorum G.Don
    Verbascum densiflorum Bertol.*+
        dense-flower mullein, mullein
             Verbascum thapsiforme Schrad.
    Verbascum nigrum L.*+
        black mullein
    Verbascum phlomoides L.*+
        clasping mullein, orange mullein
    Verbascum thapsus L.*+
        common mullein, flannel plant, giant mullein
    Verbascum X kerneri Fritsch X +
        Kerner's mullein
  Genus: Veronica

    Veronica americana Schwein. ex Benth.*+
        American brooklime, American speedwell
             Veronica beccabunga L. var. americana Raf.
    Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.*+
        water speedwell
             Veronica anagallis L.
             Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. var. glandulosa Farw.
             Veronica catenata Pennell
             Veronica catenata Pennell var. catenata
             Veronica catenata Pennell var. glandulosa (Farw.) Pennell
             Veronica comosa auct. non K.Richt.
             Veronica comosa K.Richt. var. glaberrima (Pennell) B.Boivin
             Veronica comosa K.Richt. var. glandulosa (Farw.) B.Boivin
             Veronica connata auct. non Raf.
             Veronica connata Raf. subsp. glaberrima
             Veronica connata Raf. var. glaberrima (Pennell) Fassett
             Veronica connata Raf. var. typica Pennell
             Veronica glandifera Pennell
             Veronica salina auct. non Schur
             Veronica X lackschewitzii J.Keller X
    Veronica arvensis L.*+
        corn speedwell
    Veronica austriaca L.
        broad-leaf speedwell
    Veronica austriaca L. subsp. teucrium+
        broad-leaf speedwell, wood-sage speedwell
             Veronica austriaca L. var. teucrium (L.) BolÚs & Vigo
             Veronica latifolia L.
             Veronica teucrium L.
    Veronica bachofenii Heuff.+
        heart-leaf speedwell
             Veronica grandis auct. vix Fisch.
    Veronica beccabunga L.*+
        brooklime, European speedwell
    Veronica chamaedrys L.*+
        germander speedwell
    Veronica dillenii Crantz+
        Dillenius' speedwell
    Veronica hederifolia L.
        ivy-leaved speedwell
    Veronica longifolia L.+
        garden veronica, long-leaved speedwell
    Veronica officinalis L.*+
        common gypsy-weed, common speedwell, speedwell
             Veronica officinalis L. var. officinalis
    Veronica peregrina L.*+
        neck-weed, purslane speedwell
    Veronica persica Poir.+
        bird's-eye speedwell
             Veronica tournefortii Vill., misapplied
    Veronica peregrina L. subsp. peregrina+
        neck-weed, purslane speedwell
             Veronica peregrina L. var. peregrina
             Veronica peregrina L. var. typica Pennell
    Veronica peregrina L. subsp. xalapensis+
        hairy purslane speedwell, purslane speedwell
             Veronica peregrina L. var. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell
             Veronica sherwoodii M.Peck
             Veronica xalapensis Kunth
    Veronica polita Fr.*+
        wayside speedwell
             Veronica didyma Ten., pro parte
    Veronica scutellata L.*+
        marsh speedwell, narrow-leaved speedwell, skullcap speedwell
             Veronica scutellata L. f. villosa (Schumach.) Pennell
             Veronica scutellata L. var. villosa Schumach.
    Veronica serpyllifolia L.*+
        thyme-leaved speedwell
    Veronica serpyllifolia L. subsp. humifusa+
        bright-blue speedwell, thyme-leaved speedwell
             Veronica humifusa Dicks.
             Veronicastrum serpyllifolium (L.) Fourr. subsp. humifusum
             Veronica serpyllifolia L. var. borealis Laest.
             Veronica serpyllifolia L. var. humifusa (Dicks.) Vahl
             Veronica tenella All.
    Veronica serpyllifolia L. subsp. serpyllifolia+
        thyme-leaved speedwell
             Veronicastrum serpyllifolium (L.) Fourr.
             Veronica serpyllifolia L. var. nummularioides Lecoq & Lamotte
             Veronica serpyllifolia L. var. serpyllifolia
    Veronica verna L.+
        spring speedwell
  Genus: Veronicastrum

    Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw.*+
        Culver's-physic, Culver's-root
             Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt.
             Veronica virginica L.
             Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw. f. villosum Pennell

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